Mohammad and his wife would like to invite you to experience Egyptian and
Scottish hospitality on the Nile.
Nileview Bed and Breakfast is the first authentic bed and breakfast
- Satellite TV
- Internet connection
- International phone line
Come and enjoy fantastic views of the pyramids.
Staying with us allows you to have 5 star views but at reasonable
We have 1 double room, 1 twin room and 1 single room.
Collection from the airport or train station can be arranged at a
small additional fee.
- 15 minutes from downtown and museum
- 20 minutes from the Citadel and Pyramids
- 30 minutes from the Cairo International Airport
We can also help tailor make your holiday and can arrange a private
driver and/or car at reasonable rates.
As our name implies, Nileview Bed and Breakfast is situated right on
the Nile with fantastic views of the pyramids from the balcony.
The number of pyramid structures in Egypt today is reported by most
sources as being between 80 and 110, with a majority favouring the
The reason for the imprecise nature of the count appears related to
the fact that as many smaller pyramids are in a poor state of
preservation and appear as little more than mounds of rubble, they are
only now being properly identified and studied by archaeologists. Most
are grouped in a number of pyramid fields, the most important of which
are listed geographically, from north to south, below.
Abu Rawash is the site of Egypt's most northerly pyramid other than
the ruins of Lepsius pyramid number one— the mostly ruined Pyramid
of Djedefre, the son and successor of Khufu. Originally it was thought
that this pyramid had never been completed, but the current
archaeological consensus is that not only was it completed, but that
it was originally about the same size as the Pyramid of Menkaure —
the third largest of the Giza pyramids. On this basis Djedefre's
edifice would have claimed the title of the fourth or fifth largest
pyramid in Egypt.
Unfortunately its location adjacent to a major crossroads made it
an easy source of stone, and quarrying — which began in Roman times
— continued until as recently as the early 20th century. Today
little remains apart from a few courses of stone superimposed upon the
natural hillock that formed part of the pyramid's core — although a
small adjacent satellite pyramid is in a better state of preservation.
Giza, on the southern outskirts of Cairo is the location of the
Pyramid of Khufu (also known as the "Great Pyramid" and the
"Pyramid of Cheops"), the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre
(or Kephren), and the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure (or
Mykerinus), along with a number of smaller satellite edifices, known
as "queens" pyramids, and the Great Sphinx.
Of the three, only Khafre's pyramid retains part of its original
polished limestone casing, towards its apex. Interestingly this
pyramid appears larger than the adjacent Khufu pyramid by virtue of
its more elevated location, and the steeper angle of inclination of
its construction — it is, in fact, smaller in both height and
The Giza Necropolis has arguably been the world's most popular
tourist destination since antiquity, and was popularised in
Hellenistic times when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of
Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Today it is the only
one of the ancient Wonders still in existence.
This site, half way between Giza and Abu Sir, is the location for
two unfinished Old Kingdom pyramids. The northern structure's owner is
believed to be the Pharaoh Nebka, whilst the southern structure is
attributed to the Third Dynasty Pharaoh Khaba, also known as Hudjefa,
successor to Sekhemkhet). Khaba's four-year tenure as pharaoh more
than likely explains the similar premature truncation of his step
pyramid. Today it is approximately twenty metres in height; had it
been completed it is likely to have exceeded forty.
There are a total of seven pyramids at this site, which served as
the main royal necropolis during the Fifth Dynasty. The quality of
construction of the Abu Sir pyramids is inferior to those of the
Fourth Dynasty — perhaps signalling a decrease in royal power or a
less vibrant economy. They are smaller than their predecessors, and
are built of low quality local limestone.
The three major pyramids are those of Niuserre (which is also the
most intact), Neferirkare Kakai and Sahure. The site is also home to
the incomplete Pyramid of Neferefre. All of the major pyramids at Abu
Sir were built as step pyramids, although the largest of them — the
Pyramid of Neferirkare Kakai — is believed to have originally been
built as a step pyramid some seventy metres in height and then later
transformed into a "true" pyramid by having its steps filled
in with loose masonry.
Major pyramids here include the Step Pyramid of Djozer — the
world's oldest monumental stone building — the Pyramid of Userkaf
and the Pyramid of Teti. Also at Saqqara is the Pyramid of Unas, which
retains a pyramid causeway that is amongst the best-preserved in
Egypt. This pyramid was also the subject of one of antiquities'
earliest restoration attempts, conducted under the auspices of one of
the sons of Ramesses II. Saqqara is also the location of the
incomplete step pyramid of Djozer's successor Sekhemkhet, known as the
Buried Pyramid. Archaeologists believe that had this pyramid been
completed it would have been larger than Djozer's.
This area is arguably the most important pyramid field in Egypt
outside Giza and Saqqara, although until 1996 the site was
inaccessible due to its location within a military base, and hence was
virtually unknown outside archaeological circles.
The southern Pyramid of Sneferu, commonly known as the Bent Pyramid
is believed to be the first (or by some accounts, second) attempt at
creating a pyramid with smooth sides. In this it was only a partial
— but nonetheless visually arresting — success; it remains the
only Egyptian pyramid to retain a significant proportion of its
original limestone casing, and serves as the best example of the
luminous appearance common to all pyramids in their original state.
The northern, or Red Pyramid built at the same location by Sneferu
was later successfully completed as the world's first true
smooth-sided pyramid. Despite its relative obscurity, the Red Pyramid
is actually the third largest pyramid in Egypt — after the pyramids
of Khufu and Khafre at Giza. Also at Dahshur is the pyramid known as
the Black Pyramid of Amenemhet III.
Two major pyramids are known to have been built at Lisht — those
of Amenemhat I and his son, Senusret I. The latter is surrounded by
the ruins of ten smaller subsidiary pyramids. The site which is in the
vicinity of the oasis of Fayyum, midway between Dahshur and Meidum,
and about 100 kilometres south of Cairo, is believed to be in the
vicinity of the ancient city of Itjtawy (the precise location of which
remains unknown), which served as the capital of Egypt during the 12th
The pyramid at Meidum is one of three constructed during the reign
of Sneferu, and is believed by some to have been commenced by that
pharaoh's father and predecessor, Huni. Some archaeologists also
suggest that the Meidum pyramid may have been the first unsuccessful
attempt at the construction of a "true" or smooth-sided
The pyramid suffered a catastrophic collapse in antiquity, and
today only the central parts of its stepped inner core remain
standing, giving it an odd tower-like appearance that is unique among
Egyptian pyramids. The hill that the pyramid sits atop is not a
natural landscape feature — it is in fact the small mountain of
debris created when the lower courses and outer casing of the pyramid
One face of the pyramid at Meidum collapsed and was shorn off
around the year 2600 BC, during the placement of its outer walls. The
Meidum pyramid was a true pyramid, a tetrahedron, whereas Djoser's
pyramid was a step pyramid, made of stacked rectangular mastabas. At
the Meidum pyramid, the buttresses were not extended to include the
structurally significant outer casing.
This addition of the limestone casing without sideways structural
support proved fatal, and massive rubble mounds can still be seen
beneath the base of the pyramid today. Following this disaster, the
builders must have reevaluated their method. The success of Djoser's
pyramid and the failure of the one at Meidum laid out a blueprint
followed for the remainder of pyramid construction in Egypt.
It has been suggested that the collapse occurred while construction
was underway on the Bent Pyramid at Dahshur (also built by Sneferu),
and that this may have been one of the reasons for the design changes
implemented during construction of the latter edifice. About 50 meters
off the ground, the angle of ascent abruptly changes. Some experts
have theorised that the builders of the Bent Pyramid changed their
construction techniques after learning of the failure at Meidum. Since
there are no known collapses of pyramids built after Meidum, we can
surmise that innovations — and the disastrous results when these
ideas were not followed — were effective lessons. When a structure
fails it does so because of an error in design, and oftentimes this
design flaw can be recognised and fixed; pyramids built later than
Meidum demonstrate inward slanting of the outer casing. Later
architects seem to have understood that the limestone covering of
their pyramids held significance in structure as well as aesthetics.
Amenemhet III was the last powerful ruler of the 12th Dynasty, and
the pyramid he built at Hawarra, near Faiyum, is believed to post-date
the so-called "Black Pyramid" built by the same ruler at
Dahshur. It is the Hawarra pyramid that is believed to have been
Amenemhet's final resting place.
The pyramid of Senusret II at el-Lahun is the southernmost
royal-tomb pyramid structure in Egypt. Its builders reduced the amount
of work necessary to construct it by ingeniously using as its
foundation and core a 12 metre high natural limestone hill.
Cairo (Arabic: القاهرة;
transliterated: al-Qāhirah) is the capital city of Egypt (and
previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area
population of approximately 15.2 million people, the largest in Africa.
Cairo is the sixteenth most populous metropolitan area in the world (the
10th according to 2004). Cairo is located at 30°2' North, 31°13' East
While al-Qāhirah is the official name of the city, in local
speech it is typically called simply by the name of the country, Mişr
(Arabic, مصر) pronounced Maşr in the local
The name Al-Qahirah literally means "The Subduer," though
it is often translated as "The Victorious." The origin of the
name is said to come from the appearance of the planet Mars during the
foundation of the city. The planet Mars, associated with destruction was
called "Al Najm Al Qahir" in Arabic, from which the name of
the city was derived. However the legacy of the name evolved into the
title "Qahirat Al Adaa" meaning "subduer of the
enemies". This title was given to the city as many armies were
destroyed in attempts to invade Cairo or defeated elsewhere by troops
sent from Cairo. (Mongols, Crusaders & Ottomans are examples.)
Cairo is located on the banks and islands of the Nile River in the
north of Egypt, immediately south of the point where the river leaves
its desert-bound valley and breaks into three branches into the
low-lying Nile Delta region.
The oldest part of the city is somewhat east of the river. There,
the city gradually spreads west, engulfing the agricultural lands next
to the Nile. These western areas, built on the model of Paris by
Ismail the Magnificent in the mid-19th century, are marked by wide
boulevards, public gardens, and open spaces. The older eastern section
of the city is very different: having grown up haphazardly over the
centuries it is filled with small lanes and crowded tenements. While
western Cairo is dominated by the government buildings and modern
architecture, the eastern half is filled with hundreds of ancient
mosques that act as landmarks.
Extensive water systems have also allowed the city to expand east
into the desert. Bridges link the Nile islands of Gezira and Roda,
where many government buildings are located and government officials
live. Bridges also cross the Nile attaching the city to the suburbs of
Giza and Imbabah (part of the Cairo conurbation).
West of Giza, in the desert, is part of the ancient necropolis of
Memphis on the Giza plateau, with its three large pyramids, including
the Great Pyramid of Giza (last surviving of the Seven Ancient Wonders
of the World). Approximately 11 miles (18 km) to the south of modern
Cairo is the site of the ancient Egyptian city of Memphis and
adjoining necropolis of Saqqara. These cities were Cairo's ancient
predecessors, when Cairo was still in this approximate geographical
The current location of Cairo was too far from the ancient course
of the Nile to support a city. Just to the south of the modern city's
location are the ruins of Memphis, which was the capital of Ancient
Egypt and was founded in around 3100 BC by Menes of Tanis after he had
united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt, although the capital
later moved to Heliopolis, further south to Thebes, and, under the
Ptolemaic dynasty, Alexandria.
The first settlement on the location of modern Cairo was a Roman
fort, known as Babylon Fort, built about AD 150, built near the
settlement known as Babylon-in-Egypt, which lay close to an ancient
Egyptian canal from the Nile to the Red Sea.
A small town mostly of Coptic Christians slowly grew around the
fort. Arab invaders, lead by Amr Ibn-el-As, took the fort town in 642
and also established their army in the location, rebuilding its
defenses. The Arab tented camp outside the fortress, known as
Al-Fustat, slowly became the permanent base of the Arab forces in
Egypt under the Umayyads and Abbasids, and contains the first mosque
Slowly, the settlement grew into a small city. The North African
Shiite Fatimid Dynasty conquered Egypt in 972 and built a new capital,
Al-Mansureya, north of the old settlement. Their leader, Al-Muez
Ledin-Ellah, renamed the city Al-Qahirah after the planet Mars which
was rising on the day the city was founded.
The Al-Azhar mosque was founded the same year, and along with its
accompanying university it made Cairo a centre of learning and
philosophy. The school remains a major center for Islamic study today.
The Seljuks captured Cairo in the mid 1100s, and Saladin and his
successors expanded the city further, including the construction of
its massive citadel.
The sack of Baghdad in 1258 heightened the importance of the city
and it became the leading intellectual and artistic centre in the
Middle East, and perhaps the world, for the next 250 years. But power
was shifting from the Arab world north to the Turks and Europeans.
The city was taken by the Ottoman Empire under Selim I in 1517, but
the ruling Mameluks quickly returned to power as nominal vassals to
the Ottoman Sultan.
The family of 26th Ottoman sultan Selim III died on the way to Medina.
They have been buried in an impressive Ottoman mausoleum in the old
quarter of Cairo. The mausoleum is still favorite plot to visit for
Era of Westernization:
Napoleon conquered Egypt in 1798, and Cairo was quickly surrendered
to him by its Mameluk rulers. Napoleon left Egypt after his fleet was
destroyed at the Battle of Aboukir Bay in August 1798, leaving General
Kléber in charge. Kléber was assassinated in 1800 and the three-year
French occupation had little lasting effect.
The first hints of westernization began under the successors to
Mehemet Ali with the introduction of a railway connection to
Alexandria in 1851. Significant change, however, did not occur until
the reign of Isma'il Pasha when, in 1863, construction of the Suez
Canal brought significant numbers of westerners to Egypt. A network of
gas lighting was installed by a French company and the railway lines
were greatly expanded.
In 1867, Isma'il visited Paris to attend the Universal Exposition
of 1867. There he saw the newly redesigned city of Haussmann and,
funded by a booming cotton trade, decided to rebuild Cairo on the
model of a European capital. He hoped to have this done by 1869 when
representatives from around the world came to Egypt for the opening of
the Suez Canal.
Rather than rebuild the old city, Isma'il elected to add a new
quarter to the western section along the bank of the Nile. The project
was carried out by Ali Pasha Mubarak and designed by the French urban
planner Pierre Grand. A new area of luxurious villas and apartments
was constructed and new government ministries were erected. Grand
boulevards were opened through the old town and tram lines soon
The era of colonization in 1882 saw the rebuilding of Cairo
continuing. A modern sewer system was installed and new suburbs such
as Heliopolis were constructed in the desert. Cairo's population
exploded, increasing from 374,000 in 1882 to 1,312,000 by 1937. The
city was dominated by westerners, however, and city planners tended to
emphasize Christian cathedrals over mosques.
Cairo remained the central city of Egypt throughout the period of
British rule and afterwards. The 20th century saw massive growth in
the size of the city as peasants left the farmlands in pursuit of work
in the factories and commerce of the metropolis. The city was
especially burdened by refugees from the various wars with Israel:
much of the population of the Sinai peninsula and the cities along the
Suez Canal left for Cairo between 1967 and 1978.
Today Cairo is Africa's most populous city and the Arab world's
Since the 19th century Cairo has also become a center for tourism
as people from around the world have come to see the monuments and
artifacts of Ancient Egypt, especially the Pyramids. Laws against the
export of these treasures has meant that the Egyptian Museum in Cairo
is the only place in the world that many items can be seen.
Cairo In Art, Literature and Music:
- Naguib Mahfouz
- Cairo Opera House
Cairo has long been the hub of education and educational services
not only for Egypt but also for the Arab World.
Today, Cairo is the center for the government offices governing the
Egyptian educational system, has the largest number of Educational
schools, and higher learning institutes among other cities and
governorates of Egypt.
Universities in Cairo:
- Al-Azhar University
- Modern Academy In Maadi
- Ain Shams University
- American University in Cairo
- AlAhram Canadian University (ACU)
- Arab Academy for Sciences & Technology and Maritime
- British University in Egypt (BUE)
- Cairo University
- French University in Egypt
- German University in Cairo (GUC)
- Helwan University
- Misr University for Science and Technology (MUST)
- Misr International University (MIU)
- Modern University for Sciences and Technology (MSA)
- Sadat Academy For Management Science
Cairo has a number of sporting teams that compete in national
leagues. The best known teams are Al-Zamalek and Al-Ahly, whose annual
football Local derby is perhaps the most watched sports event in Egypt
as well as the Arab World. Both teams are known as the giants of
Egyptian and Arabic football, and are champions in the African
continent and the Arab World.
Both teams play their home games at Cairo International Stadium,
which is Cairo's and Egypt's largest stadium.
The Cairo International Stadium is a multipurpose sports complex
that houses the main Soccer stadium, an indoor stadium, several
satellite fields that held several regional, continental and global
games, including the African Games, Football World Championship for
U17 and is one of the stadiums scheduled to host the 2006 African
Nations Cup which begins on 20 January. Cairo failed at the applicant
stage when bidding for the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, which will be
hosted in Beijing China. Egypt was unsuccessful in bidding to host the
2010 Soccer World Cup, which will be held in South Africa.
There are several other sports teams in the city that participate
in several sports including Al Jazeera Sporting Club, Shooting club,
Heliopolis Club and several smaller clubs.
Most of the sports federations of the country are also located in
the city suburbs, including the Egyptian Football Association. The
headquarters of the Confederation of African Football (CAF) was
previously located in Cairo, before relocating to its new headquarters
in 6th October City.
Famous People From Cairo:
Famous people from Cairo include:
- Omar Sharif, Actor
- Naguib Mahfouz, Nobel Laureate and novelist
- Mohamed ElBaradei, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate
- Ahmed H. Zewail, Nobel Prize in Chemistry Laureate
- Maimonides, court physician to Saladin and Talmudic scholar
- Boutros Boutros Ghali, former Secretary-General of the United